Five cases of children with nontuberculosis pericardial constriction with effusion are reported. The disease is not as rare as has been thought, and the aetiology in these cases was probably a previous virus infection. A previous diagnosis of hepatitis, nephrotic syndrome, or protein-losing enteropathy had been made and the correct diagnosis was delayed for months or even years. Pericardiectomy produced immediate relief from symptoms in 2 patients but in 2 others there was evidence of poor myocardial function postoperatively.
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