In the 13 years since hepatic glycogen synthetase deficiency was first described in identical twins no further cases seem to have been observed. We report a child who had suffered from occasional morning convulsions since the age of 7. Three 24-hour metabolic profiles showed fasting hypoglycaemia, hyperketonaemia, but normal lactate. Hyperglycaemia and hyperlactataemia occurred after meals. Glucagon caused a rise in glucose 3 hours after a meal with a fall in lactate and alanine; no effect of glucagon was seen after a 12-hour fast. Normal increments in glucose followed oral galactose or alanine. Liver and abdominal wall muscle biopsies were taken. Glycogen content was subnormal in liver but normal in muscle. Glycogen synthetase (EC 188.8.131.52) was virtually absent from liver but fully active in muscle. Hepatic glycogen synthetase deficiency causing fasting hypoglycaemia has been confirmed. It is postulated that some children with "ketotic hypoglycaemia" may suffer from this disorder.