Two sibs who sustained severe hypoglycaemia in the neonatal period are reported. In spite of treatment with frequent feeds intravenous glucose, glucagon, hydrocortisone, and diazoxide, hypoglycaemia persisted, and both infants eventually required subtotal pancreatectomy. Tests for leucine toleranct were normal though the second case showed some protein sensitivity. Histological and immunohistochemical studies indicated nesidioblastosis in both specimens of pancreata. The children are presently performing at mildly retarded levels, and required diazoxide and anticonvulsant medication for some time postoperatively. Because both sexes are represetned, an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern is suggested. The theory of a gut hormone stimulating insulin production is briefly discussed.
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