In 100 children with persistent hypertension seen over the past 5 1/2 years the commonest causes of hypertension were chronic glomerulonephritis, reflux nephropathy, coarctation of the aorta, and obstructive uropathy, accounting for some 70% of cases. 17 children have died, but in the remainder hypertension has been controlled by surgery, chronic haemodialysis, or by the use of pharmacological agents. Methyldopa was the commonest drug used, and the children appeared relatively resistant to the side effects of this and of other drugs, even when large doses were used. The improvment is the prognosis of severe hypertension in childhood indicated in this survey is largely due to the availability of chronic haemodialysis and transplantation for end-stage renal disease, but the advances in diagnositc methods and surgical techniques and the introduction of new drugs have also contributed.
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