Serum thyrotrophin (TSH) was estimated by double-antibody radioimmunoassay in 200 children aged 2 months to 16 years with normal thyroid function. There was no apparent variation in TSH with age or sex and only 4 children had TSH levels greater than 5 muU/ml. High TSH values were obtained in 9 children with primary hypothyroidism, in 3 children with thyroiditis, and in one girl with a lingual thyroid. Moderately raised TSH was found in 3 girls with thyroiditis, 2 brothers with goitres due to enzyme defect, and a girl with an ectopic thyroid. In one girl with a defect of iodine organification and in 3 boys with thyroxine binding globulin deficiency the TSH levels were normal despite very low serum thyroxine values. Serum TSH was also estimated in 20 children during treatment for primary hypothyroidism. 3 of these children showed slightly raised TSH levels despite apparently adequate replacement therapy with L-thyroxine. One girl showed a very high TSH level 3 weeks after treatment had been temporarily withdrawn.
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