This paper reports the experiences of the second clinical trial in the use of isosorbide in the treatment of 34 selected cases of infantile hydrocephalus of all types. Subject to careful biochemical monitoring of serum electrolyte, urea, and acid-base balance, treatment with 2 g/kg body weight 6-hourly is safe. Side effects are immediately eliminated by interrupting therapy. With lower dosage, prolonged maintenance therapy was possible, for as long as 11 months, without side effects and with need for much less frequent biochemical monitoring. Isosorbide effectively prevented the need for shunt therapy in 10 of 34 patients, including 3 infants with uncomplicated congenital hydrocephalus of moderate degree and infants whose hydrocephalus was associated with spina bifida and whose cerebral mantle was between 20 to 25 mm. In posthaemorrhagic and postmeningitic hydrocephalus valuable time was gained before shunt therapy until the infant and his CSF were fit for operation.
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