During screening of 16,800 primary schoolgirls, aged 4-12 years, in Cardiff and Oxford, significant bacteriuria was found in 294 (1-7%). Intravenous urography and micturating cystography were performed in 246 of these girls. The urinary tract was abnormal in 47%. Pyelonephritis with or without vesicoureteric reflux was present in 26% and reflux without renal abnormality in a further 16%. The prevalence of pyelonephritis and reflux was independent of age. With few exeptions kidneys without pyelonephritic scars appeared to be normal in size, even when ureteric reflux was present.
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