Two cases of idiopathic generalized arterial calcification in infancy are described. The changes in the vessels consist of calcification in relation to the internal elastic lamina, with secondary subintimal proliferation of fibrous tissue and, occasionally, extension into the media. They are usually most marked in the coronary arteries, with resulting myocardial disease, and acute congestive cardiac failure is the most common presentation and cause of death. The histological picture resembles closely the arterial changes that may occur in severe renal disease, hyperparathyroidism, primary bone disease, hypervitaminosis D, and occasional cases of congenital heart disease.
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