Background and aims The period of organogenesis in the embryonic development is critical in terms of occurrence of long-term effects of intoxication. There is evidence that the fetus is exposed to the same alcohol level as the mother’s body. It is known that an imbalance in the system ‘lipid peroxidation-antioxidant defense’ leads to the development of oxidative stress, which is accompanied by a decrease in the body’s resistance to adverse factors of the external and internal environment. The aim of this study was to identify features of the lipid peroxidation-antioxidant defense system (LPO-AOD) in newborns born from mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy.
Methods An umbilical cord blood of 66 newborns in the control group (group 1) and 74 newborns, whose mothers consumed alcohol in beer form, dry wine and champagne for the entire period of pregnancy (53 newborns, whose mothers consumed less than 2 doses or 750 ml (group 2) and 21 newborns whose mothers consumed from 2 to 11 doses (750–3850 ml)) (group 3) was studied. Spectrophotometric and fluorometric methods for studying the LPO-AOD have been used. All pregnant women received informed consent for the study.
Results Lipid peroxidation process in both groups of newborns was characterised by a statistically significant increasing of diene conjugates content (p1−2=0,006; p1−3<0,001) and decreased values of α-tocopherol (p1−2=0,006; p1−3=0,031) and superoxide dismutase activity (p1−2<0,0001; p1−3=0,008) comparing to control group. The reduction of reduced glutathione (GSH) noted in group 2 in comparison with control (p1−2=0,0007). Fall GSH concentration in red blood cells in newborns 2nd and 3rd groups, may be associated with the observed significant decrease of glutathione reductase activity (p1−2<0,0001; p1−3<0,0001) and glutathione-S-transferase (p1−2=0,001; p1−3=0,04) comparing to control group. In general, the decrease in GSH concentration and activity of the enzymes involved in its metabolism in the newborn group 2 has a negative effect on the balance in the LPO-AOD system.
Conclusions Thus, the results suggest that even a small amount of alcoholic beverages drunk by women during pregnancy can cause different metabolic changes in the newborns body, in particular, leading to an imbalance of redox exchange, expressed dysfunction of LPO-AOD system.
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