Obesity is one of the major risk factors for developing atherosclerosis accompanied by other cardiovascular risk factors.
Aims To determine the incidence of obesity in the group of children, the accompanying risk factors (high blood glucose and blood pressure values, dyslipidemia) important for the development of atherosclerosis, their frequency in the group of obese, overweight and normal weight children and the importance of sports activities in the existing risk factors in children
Methods The degree of nourishment is determined by calculating the body mass index (BMI). The overweight were classified with BMI of 25–29.9 kg/m2, obese with BMI>30kg/m2.
Everyone was measured blood pressures (systolic and diastolic), the concentrations of glucose (gl), total cholesterol (TC/mmol/l), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C/mmol/l, Triglicerid (Tg/mmol/l). Concentration of low density lipoproteins was calculated (LDL-C/mmol/l). The percentage of children with values of TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and Tg which are high risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood was determined. National good clinical practice guide ’Lipid disorders’ was used.
Results 389 children aged 2 to 19 were examined, 12.34% obese, 22.62% overweight and 61.44% normal weight children. Values od systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, Tg were higher, HDL-C value was lower in overweight children than in normal weight, but without significant statistic diference. Values of diastolic blood pressure, TC and LDL-C were significantly higher in overweight children. In obese children these values were significantly higher than in normal weight. In obese children the largest number had values of TC, LDL-C and Tg which are high-risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood (14.58%, 12.5%, 22.9%) as compared to overweight (11.36%, 9.64%, 5.68%) and the normal weight children (5.44%, 5%, 5.02%). In normal weight sport inactive children values of TC, HDL-C and Tg were higher compared to sport active children but without statistically significant difference and also was the percentage of children with values of LDL-C and HDL-C that are high risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood.
In obese sport inactive children lipids values were higher than in sport active but without significant statistic diference (>0.05) and also was the percentage of children with the values of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C levels that are high risk factor for developing of cardiovascular disease in adulthood.
Conclusions It is necessary to detect the obese children, to clarify the cause of obesity and as early as possible to include them in the diet, and if necessary, the drug treatment. In monitoring these children it is essential to monitor the blood pressure, and lipid status. In the prevention of obesity health education of parents, especially mothers, is essential.
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