Backround and aims Household products are one of the most important category responsable for paediatric toxic exposure, especially in children younger then 6 years old. The aims of this study were to analize the epidemiological characteristics of paediatric exposures to packet and nonpacket forms of liquid detergents and to identify the most frequent clinical findings associated with this type of exposures.
Methods We performed a five year retrospective study between January 1 st, 2012 and December 31 st, 2016 of all cases with liquid detergent poisoning admitted to the Toxicology Department in the Clinical Emergency Hospital for Children „Grigore Alexandrescu ’ from Bucharest.
Results A total of 231 cases involving liquid detergents were recorded, including 166 cases of laundry liquid detergents and 65 exposures to other types of liquid detergents. The packet forms of laundry detergents were the most commonly identified (131 cases, 56.7%)
Boys (131 cases) were more frequently exposed than girls (100 cases). Regarding the age, most patients belonged to the age group 1–5 years (190 cases, 82.25%), followed by patients younger than 1 year (23 de cases, 9.95,%), those aged 6 to 10 years (11 cases, 4.76%) and 11 to 18 years (7 cases,3.03% ). The mean age of the patients exposed was 2.7 years.
85.7% of the patients were symptomatic after exposure, clinical manifestations depending on the route of exposure. In case of ingestion, gastrointestinal symptoms were most commonly noted. Vomiting were present in 180 cases (77.9%), causing acute dehydration in 36 cases. Dysphagia was noted in 41 of the analysed cases, abdominal pain in 11 cases and diarrhoea and hematemesis in 2 cases each. Coughing was noted in 25 patient (10.8%), of which 7 were diagnosed with chemical laryngitis and 9 with chemical pneumonia. Dermal exposure was associated to ingestion in 6 patients and determined oral irritation or oral burns and lips oedema.
Ocular exposure occurred in 11 patients (4.76%) causing conjunctivitis, keratitis or corneal burns.
Conclusions Exposures to packed forms of liquid laundry detergents were much more common than laundry detergents nonpacket or other types of liquid detergents exposures. Clinical manifestations depended on the route of exposure: ingestion, ocular or dermal and the severity of clinical effects ranged between no symptoms to severe form of hematemesis, acute dehydration and chemical pneumonia.
- liquid detergents
- packed form