Background and aims Child overweight and obesity has increased globally every region of the world. Based on the evidence of 2014, 19.9% of children in the Russian Federation are overweight and about 5.7% are obese.
The purpose of the study: To evaluate the effectiveness of the application of bioimpedance analysis of body composition to optimise recommendations for diet correction in children who are overweight or obese.
Methods 82 children aged 5–18 years who were overweight or obese have been examined; 49 girls (59.8%) and 33 boys (40.2%). The component body composition was studied using bioimpedance analysis with the definition of the following parameters: body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM) (as a percentage and in kg), lean body mass (LBM), active cell mass (ACM), specific (normalised for body surface area) basal metabolism, phase angle.
The assessment of actual nutrition was made using a questionnaire (3 days), and a computer program for calculating the chemical composition of the diet.
Results 19 children (23.2%) were overweight, 34 children (41.5%) had 1st degree obesity and 29 children (35.3%) had 2nd degree obesity (p<0.05). According to the bioimpedance analysis, all examined children had an excess of fat mass, and water retention in the body was revealed in 48 girls (58.5%) and 34 boys (41.5%).
Active cell mass was reduced in 55 children out of 63 with 1st–2nd degree obesity and in 13 children out of 19 who were overweight. A decrease in phase angle was noted in all subjects, with reduced ACM, increased FM (both kg and percentage) and reduced specific basal metabolism, reflecting a state of hypodynamia in the children examined.
After diet therapy, with food and water intake schedule observed, appetite-stimulating products eliminated and fasting days used, as well as additional measures such as an increase in physical activity, a change in eating behaviour and the keeping of a food diary, component body composition was repeatedly estimated over a period of 1 to 1.5 months. In 55 children (67.1%), body composition measurements showed positive signs. In 27 of the children (32.9%) who did not keep to a diet, the bioimpedance analysis indices remained unchanged.
Conclusion The application of bioimpedance analysis of dynamics within the program of body weight correction provides an opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of diet therapy in children who are overweight or obese.
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