Background Diabetes Mellitus (DM) involves a variety of metabolic disorders, caused by ‘hyperglycemia’ (secretion insufficiency or reduced insulin activity). Diabetes Mellitus type 1 (absolute insulin quantitative deficiency) is one of the four DM types. DM type 1a is autoimmune (most common) and DM type 1b is idiopathic.
Aim Epidemiological recording of hospitalised children suffering from DM type 1 (2012–2016) based on demographic and other characteristics (age, sex, residence, duration of hospitalisation, body weight, HbA1c levels, first-diagnosis or deregulation, presence or no of hereditary background, presence or no of diabetic acidosis).
Method/Material 31 children suffering from DM type 1 have been hospitalised in our clinic through the past five years. Cause of hospitalisation was either the disease itself or its complications (diabetic acidosis, hypoglycemia, deregulation) and more rarely another disease, usually infectious. The reference data and correlates were: sex (boys/girls), age (toddlers/preschoolers/school-age children/adolescents), residence (Volos, rest of Magnesia region, Pelion, Sporades), year of hospitalisation, body weight (over or under 50th percentile), HbA1c levels, duration of hospitalisation and presence or no of DM type 1 or 2 hereditary background.
Results 31 children have been recorded (17 boys). Sorted by age groups: 19 school-age children (6–12 y.o.), 6 adolescents (>13 y.o.), 3 preschoolers (3–5 y.o.) and 3 toddlers (1–3 y.o.). Sorted by year of hospitalisation: (2012–2016) (2,9,6,7,7 respectively). Most of them were residents of Volos and Pelion. Hospitalisation lasted 1–14 days (average: 5 days). HbA1c levels have been recorded in 25 children, 12 of whom HbA1c was over 10. 24 out of the 31 children were first diagnosed with DM type 1 (10 of whom presented with diabetic acidosis) and 7 of them presented with deregulation. In 10 children hereditary background of DM type 1 or 2 was revealed.
Conclusions Based on the recordings, boys are more frequently affected (in contrast with recent epidemiological findings). The often affected age group is once more proved to be school-age children (6–12 y.o.). The highest number of hospitalised children is noted in 2013 and the number of Pelion and Sporades diabetic children is higher compared to these areas’ total populations (but our sample is small, for general results). HbA1c levels are indicative of glycemic control through the past 3 months, a fact which proves that the disease creeps weeks before being diagnosed. Aproximately 1/3 of the children have first-degree relatives suffering from DM type 1 or 2, a fact which evinces the role of heredity in DM’s type 1 pathogenesis.
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