Background Ethnic minority children are at greater risk for type 2 diabetes. The current prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children in England and Wales is not known. Additionally, very little is known on glycaemic control in paediatric type 2 diabetes globally.
Methods Using data from the National Paediatric Diabetes Audit (NPDA) for 2012–13, we estimated A. The overall, gender- and ethnic-specific prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children <16 years and B. Whether ethnicity predicts glycaemic control (mean HbA1c) in children <19 years. Ethnicity was self-identified and categorised into White, Asian, Black, Mixed, Other and ’Not-stated’. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate differences in glycaemic control by ethnicity adjusting for socioeconomic status, age, diabetes duration and gender.
Results 307 children <16 years were identified with type 2 diabetes in 2012–13. The table shows prevalence estimates by gender and ethnicity. Overall prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 2.9/100,000 with females having a higher prevalence than males (4.3 vs. 1.5/100,000). Asians had greater than five-fold increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes compared to White children (8 vs. 1.4/100,000). The highest prevalence of type 2 diabetes was found in Asian (12.2/100,000) followed by Mixed-ethnicity (4.4/100,000) females. White males had the lowest prevalence (0.6/100,000). Mixed-ethnicity children had the highest mean HbA1c (83mmol/mol) compared to other groups; White (62 mmol/mol), Asian (65 mmol/mol), Black (63 mmol/mol), Other (66 mmol/mol) and Not-stated (61 mmol/mol). In regression analysis, Mixed-ethnicity children had the highest HbA1c levels (adjusted mean difference with the White group was 22.3 mmol/mol, 95% CI 10.9–33.6), with no significant differences observed in other ethnic groups.
Conclusion Children of all ethnic-minorities have an increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes compared to White children, with Asian females being particularly affected. Results indicate a significant increase in paediatric type 2 diabetes over the past decade. Those belonging to mixed-ethnic backgrounds had the poorest glycaemic control.
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