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Pneumocystis jirovecii, previously known as Pneumocystis cariniii , is an opportunistic parasite that causes P. jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in immunocompromised hosts. Most immunocompetent children acquire asymptomatic infection with P. jirovecii by the age of 4 years,1 while symptomatic disease occurs almost exclusively in severely immunocompromised hosts.
Pneumocystis has been recognised as a cause of pneumonia since the 1940s when epidemics of ‘plasma cell pneumonia’ were diagnosed in malnourished and premature infants in care homes in Eastern Europe.2 In the 1960s, as immunosuppressive therapy for malignancy …
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